- equal amplitude
- 0° phase relationship between any two output signals
- high isolation between each output signal
- insertion loss as follows:

Number of Output Ports |
Theoretical Insertion Loss (dB) |

2 | 3.0 |

3 | 4.8 |

4 | 6.0 |

5 | 7.0 |

6 | 7.8 |

8 | 9.0 |

10 | 10.0 |

12 | 10.8 |

16 | 12.0 |

24 | 13.8 |

48 | 16.8 |

Since the 0° power splitter is a reciprocal passive device it may be used as a power combiner
simply by applying each signal singularly into each of the splitter output ports. The vector sum of
the signals will appear as a single output at the splitter input port.

The power combiner will exhibit an insertion loss that varies depending upon the phase and
amplitude relationship of the signals being combined. For example, in a 2 way 0° power
splitter/combiner, Fig. 1 if the two input signals are equal in amplitude and are in-phase then the
insertion loss is zero. However, if the signals are 180° out-of-phase the insertion loss is infinite.
And, if the two signals are at different frequencies, the insertion loss will equal the theoretical
insertion loss shown above.

The power combiner will also exhibit isolation between the input ports. The amount of isolation
will depend upon the impedance termination at the combiner output or sum port. For example, in
the 2 way 0° power splitter/combiner of Fig. 1 if port S is open then the isolation between ports A
and B would be 6dB. And, if port S is terminated by a matched impedance (for maximum power
transfer) then the isolation between ports A and B would be infinite.

*1. When used as a 0° power splitter,** the input is applied to port S and equal outputs appear at
ports A and B. When used as a power combiner, both inputs are applied to ports A and B and the sum taken from port S.*

The following signal processing functions can be accomplished by power splitter/combiners:

- 1. Add or subtract signals vectorially.

2. Obtain multi in-phase output signals proportional to the level of a common input signal.

3. Split an input signal into multi-outputs.

4. Combine signals from different sources to obtain a single port output.

5. Provide a capability to obtain RF logic arrangements.

**1A. Basic 2 way 0° power splitter**, simple "T".

The most basic form of a power splitter is a simple "T" connection, which has one input and two
outputs. If the "T" is mechanically symmetrical, a signal applied to the input will be divided into
two output signals, equal in amplitude and phase. The arrangement is simple and it works, with
limitations.

*2. In two-way splitter/combiner,** equal and opposite currents flow through the internal resistor
and transformer, cancel each other, and provide high isolation between ports A and B.*

The two obvious limitations are impedance mismatch and poor isolation. In a 50-ohm system, each output would be connected to a 50-ohm impedance, thus offering a 25-ohm impedance to the input port. Thus, the impedance looking into the common or input port would present a mismatch in a 50-ohm system. To correct this mismatch, a 25 to 50-ohm matching transformer would be necessary for the simple "T".

Now, consider the second serious limitation of a simple "T", poor isolation. Suppose, for
example, that two antennas were fed to a receiver input using a simple "T" as a combiner. If one
antenna appears as a short at its resonant frequency, it would load down the other antenna and, in
effect, wipe out the receiver input. However, a properly designed power combiner would provide
high isolation between inputs so that the antenna "short condition" at one input would have little
influence on the other input and would cause approximately a 3:1 VSWR mismatch at the output
port, in this case, the receiver input.

In a simple "T" circuit power combiner the isolation between input ports will depend upon the
impedance termination at the output port. If the output port is open then the input ports would
have zero isolation between them. And, if the output port is terminated by a matched impedance
the isolation would be 3dB.

Improving upon the simple "T" circuit, consider the basic lumped element power
splitter/combiner circuit of Fig. 2. The transformer has an equal number of turns from the center
tap to each end. Therefore, as an auto transformer (2 to 1 turns. ratio) the impedance across the
output ends is 4 times larger than the impedance across the center tap to one end.

Let's examine how this circuit enables high isolation between ports A and B. As a power
combiner, an input signal applied to port A will cause a current to flow through the transformer
and experience a 180° phase shift by the time it arrives at port B. Similarly, a current will also
flow through the resistor, R int and will not experience a phase shift by the time it arrives at port
B. When R int equals the impedance value across the transformer ends then, the currents
appearing at port B will be equal in amplitude but opposite in phase and cancel. The net result is
that no voltage appears at port B from the input signal applied at port A. Thus, there is
theoretically infinite isolation between the ports.

Further examining the circuit of Fig. 2, let's determine the theoretical insertion loss between port
S and ports A and B. As a power splitter, a signal applied at port S will be split so that identical
signals appear at ports A and B, due to the circuit symmetry. If the impedance values are
matched then maximum power transfer will take place and half the input power would appear at
each port resulting in a 3dB theoretical loss at each port. Furthermore, under the conditions
described the circuit is lossless since the voltage across R int is zero.

Let's take an example to illustrate the concepts described. Suppose we have a 50 ohm system so
that ports A and B are each terminated in 50 ohms. They appear across the transformer in series
so that a 100 ohm transformer impedance is required for optimum power match. Since the
transformer has a 4 to 1 impedance ratio, the impedance at port S is 25 ohms. In this example we
must add a 2 to 1 (50 to 25 ohm) transformer at port S so that the S port impedance is matched to
the 50 ohm system. Remembering the value of R int equals the transformer impedance (to obtain
maximum isolation), R int equals 100 ohms. We have now completely specified the circuit
values of the 50 ohm 2 way 0° power splitter.

Now, let's consider two examples of mismatch at port S, one slight and another large. Assume a
+ 20 dBm signal is applied to port A; with perfect isolation, none of this signal reaches port B.
Since there is a 3 dB loss between input A and port S due to the loss in the internal resistor, + 17
dBm arrives at port S ignoring any slight transformer loss. If a slight impedance mismatch exists
at port S, which causes a -20 dB signal reflection, then a signal of -3 dBm ( + 17 dBm attenuated
by 20 dB) is sent back to ports A and B. This -3 dBm signal experiences a 3 dB loss as it is fed to
port B, and the mismatch has now resulted in a -6 dB signal at input B from port A. Now
isolation between both input ports is not infinite; there is a +20 dBm signal at port A and a -6
dBm signal at port B for an isolation of 26 dB. Reason? Slight impedance mismatch at port S.

What about a more serious mismatch? Suppose the + 17 dBm signal arrives at port S and a
mismatch produces a -10 dB signal reflection. Now +7 dBm is fed back to port B (+17 dBm with
10 dB loss); add the additional return 3 dB loss, and a +4 dBm signal appears at port B. Now
isolation is only 16 dB, the difference between port A's 20 dBm and the 4 dBm signal at port B
due to the mismatch.

Important point: make sure port S is properly matched to eliminate reflections and thus maintain high isolation. Mismatch at either port A or B is not critical if port S of a power combiner is properly matched. If cancellation through the transformer and internal resistor is taking place, there will not be any voltage drop across port A and B and thus no effect on isolation.

Let's take it one step further and assume port S and port A are properly terminated but port B is shorted. As a power combiner, port A would still be isolated from port B and "would not see the short at port B." However, the impedance looking into the S port of the power combiner would be lower. As an example, for a 50 ohm power combiner the impedance at the S port would change from 25 ohms to 8 1/3 ohms as the termination impedance at port B changes from 50 ohms to a short.

In practical power splitter/combiner where R int does not exactly equal the impedance across the transformer, there would be less than a 3dB loss at port A because part of the reflected power from port B would appear at port A.

If an application demands an internal resistor power rating larger than available as a standard catalog item, Mini-Circuits can supply a unit without an internal resistor. And a higher power rating resistor can be outboarded. Of course, the performance of the final combination will depend on the external resistor's characteristics, the way it is wired, and its capacitance to the board on which it is mounted.

When high isolations are encountered, in the range of 50 dB, the accuracy of the measurement can be improved by replacing the RF voltmeter with a spectrum analyzer and/or by inserting a filter between the port A (or B) and the RF voltmeter. The filter reduces the effects of harmonics from the RF generator. This is especially significant when the isolation of the power splitter/combiner differs by more than 10 dB over the frequency range covering the RF generator frequency and its harmonics.

The technique for measuring isolation of more than a two-way splitter is exactly the same as that
just described; just make sure all unused ports are terminated with the appropriate impedance.
However, the accuracy of this termination impedance is not very critical since there is usually
high isolation between ports.

**3. To improve insertion loss measurement**, first a 3dB standard attenuation is placed between
points A and S, and an RF voltmeter reading is taken. Then the attenuator is removed and
the power splitter/combiner is connected to A, B, and S.

It is quite important, however, that the terminating impedance at the common or S-port be very accurate. Deviations from the correct impedance value will cause significant errors. Typically, a termination impedance with a VSWR of 1.05 to 1 is used at Mini-Circuits for isolation testing.

Not so, fortunately with power splitters. The key parameters are influenced in the same direction during the design stage. A well-designed power splitter will offer high isolation, low insertion loss and good VSWR. You just don't encounter a power splitter with high isolation and poor VSWR, nor high isolation with a poor insertion loss spec. Why? Because poor insertion loss specs generally result from an improper matching transformer (winding not exactly symmetrical) or slight variations in stray capacitances at each end of the transformer; these effects, however, adversely affect insertion loss as well as isolation.

This raises a significant point. There is no need to specify a number of tight spec parameters when you need a power splitter for a particularly stringent requirement. Simply specify a tight improved spec on the key parameter most critical to the task and you'll find the remaining specs will also be upgraded. If you insist on writing tight specs on a number of parameters, you may be paying extra money for a device you would have received anyway. Of course, you can specify one tight parameter, as suggested, and request support data on the other parameters to monitor their characteristics.

In some applications, it is possible for several parameters to be important. In other applications, only one parameter may be considerably significant while others are not. For example, in a power combiner used to add the outputs of two amplifiers, insertion loss is a critical factor while isolation may not be deemed essential.

On the other hand, consider a test setup for two-tone, third-order IM measurement. Here it is common to operate two RF generators that are close to each other in frequency, resulting in one generator "talking to the other" or "pulling." To avoid this measurement pitfall, a power combiner is placed between both RF generators; here the isolation spec is very significant while other parameters, such as phase or amplitude unbalance, have no importance at all.

You can lower your demands, and your cost, by analyzing what parameters must be met while understanding others that can be ignored.

Although the above procedure is simple, the accuracy of the measurement is limited by the accuracy of the RF voltmeter. An improved technique requires a standard 3 dB attenuator placed between test points A and S (see Fig. 3) with the two-way power splitter disconnected from the test set-up. The RF generator level is set so that the RF voltmeter reading is near the top of the scale, its most accurate region. Then the 3 dB standard attenuator is removed and the power splitter is connected to test points A, B and S. The difference between the first and the new RF voltmeter reading represents the additional power splitter loss over the 3 dB theoretical value. Thus, the insertion loss is 3 dB plus this incremental RF voltmeter reading. Repeat for port B.

The procedure for measuring insertion loss for more than a two-way splitter is essentially the same as previously described. The difference is that the standard attenuator value should be close to the theoretical minimum insertion loss for the power splitter under test. Remember that all ports should be terminated in the correct value of impedance. Practically speaking, the terminations do not have to be perfectly matched but will influence measurement accuracy.